# Modeling topography¶

## Computing slope and aspect¶

Topographic slope and aspect map can be created by r.slope.aspect.

Such map can be classified using r.recode into defined classes. Example:

```
0:2:1
2:5:2
5:8:3
8:15:4
15:30:5
30:*:6
```

Note

Categories can be labeled by r.category, result is shown on the figure bellow.

```
1:0-2 deg
2:2-5
3:5-8
4:8-15
5:15-30
6:30-*
```

## Curvatures¶

Concavity/convexity of terrain can be explored with curvatures computed by r.param.scale. Example:

```
# profile curvature
r.param.scale input=dem37 output=profc37 method=profc size=11
# tangential curvature
r.param.scale input=dem37 output=crosc37 method=tangc size=11
```

## Landform identification¶

Landforms (ridge, valley, ...) can be obtained from curvatures
computed by r.param.scale (`method=feature`

). The
modern method based multiscale line-of-sight approach is implemented
by *r.geomorphon* addon.

Note

Addons are not part of GRASS distribution and can be installed from menu g.extension command.

, or byExample:

```
r.geomorphon elevation=dem37 forms=landforms37 search=16 skip=6
```

## Solar radiation and shades¶

Based on slope and aspect maps can be computed solar irradiation (daily radiation sum in Wh/m2.day) for a given day using r.sun:

```
# day=1 -> 1.1.
r.sun elevation=dem37 slope=slope37 aspect=aspect37 beam_rad=beam37 step=1 day=1
r.colors -e map=beam37 color=grey
```

Note for advanced users

Computation can be very slow. Check for paralelization efforts.

Than we can also compute solar irradiance (W/m2) for a given day and hour (in local solar time) and extract the shades cast by topography:

```
r.sun elevation=dem37 slope=slope37 aspect=aspect37 beam_rad=beam37_8 day=1 time=12
r.colors -e map=beam37_12 color=grey
```

## Visibility analysis¶

Visibility analysis can be perform in GRASS by r.viewshed, see example on the figure below.

## Cost surface and least cost path¶

In this example we perform least cost path analysis with slope as cost. Example:

```
r.cost -k input=slope37 output=cost37 outdir=outdir37 start_coordinates=533072,5626854
r.colors map=cost37 color=gyr
r.drain -d input=cost37 output=drain37 direction=outdir37 drain=drain37 start_coordinates=532046,5626889
```